Instrument Simulation in SOXS

Running the Instrument Simulator

The end product of a mock observation is a “standard” event file which has been convolved with a model for the telescope. In SOXS, this is handled by the instrument simulator.

instrument_simulator() reads in a SIMPUT catalog and creates a standard event file using the instrument simulator. instrument_simulator() performs the following actions:

  1. Uses the effective area curve to determine which events will actually be detected.
  2. Projects these events onto the detector plane and perform PSF blurring and dithering of their positions (if dithering is enabled for that particular instrument).
  3. Add background events.
  4. Convolves the event energies with the response matrix to produce channels.
  5. Writes everything to an event file.

All of the photon lists in the SIMPUT catalog will be processed. A typical invocation of instrument_simulator() looks like the following:

from soxs import instrument_simulator
simput_file = "snr_simput.fits" # SIMPUT file to be read
out_file = "evt_lxm.fits" # event file to be written
exp_time = (30.0, "ks") # The exposure time
instrument = "lynx_lxm" # short name for instrument to be used
sky_center = [30., 45.] # RA, Dec of pointing in degrees
instrument_simulator(simput_file, out_file, exp_time, instrument,
                     sky_center, overwrite=True)

The overwrite argument allows an existing file to be overwritten.

Coordinate Systems in SOXS

SOXS event files produced by the instrument simulator have two coordinate systems: the (X, Y) “sky” coordinate system and the (DETX, DETY) “detector” coordinate system.

For a given instrument specification, the detector space is defined by the field of view parameter fov, which is in arcminutes, and is divided into num_pixels pixels on a side. The field of view is shown in the schematic diagram in Figure 1 as the dashed red square. The center of the field of view has detector coordinates 0,0, as can be seen in Figure 1.

The sky coordinate system is defined to be twice the size of the fov parameter, with twice as many pixels. The center of the sky coordinate system is given by pixel coordinates 0.5*(2*num_pixels+1),0.5*(2*num_+pixels+1). The sky coordinate system is also shown in Figure 1. In event files and images, standard world coordinate system (WCS) keywords are used to translate between sky coordinates and RA and Dec.

../_images/det_schematic.png

Figure 1: Schematic showing the layout of sky and detector coordinate systems, as well as multiple chips, for an example instrument similar to Chandra/ACIS-I. A roll angle of 45 degrees has been specified.

If the roll_angle parameter of the instrument simulation is 0, the sky and detector coordinate systems will be aligned, but otherwise they will not. Figure 1 shows the orientation of the detector in the sky coordinate system for a roll angle of 45 degrees. For observations which have dither, the sky coordinates and the detector coordinates will not have a one-to-one mapping, but will change as a function of time.

Finally, Figure 1 also shows that multiple chips can be specified. In this case, only events which fall within the chip regions are detected. For more information on how multiple chips can be specified for a particlular instrument, see Defining Instruments with Multiple Chips.

Warning

At the present time, the coordinate systems specified in SOXS do not correspond directly to those systems in event files produced by actual X-ray observatories. This is particularly true of detector coordinates. The conventions chosen by SOXS are mainly for convenience.

The instrument Argument

SOXS currently supports instrument configurations for Lynx, Athena, Chandra, XRISM, and AXIS “out of the box”. Any of these can be specified with the instrument argument:

Lynx

All Lynx configurations correspond to the \(d = 3~m, f = 10~m\) mirror system. Other mirror systems contained in previous versions of SOXS

Imaging

For Lynx, there are currently four base imaging instruments, "lynx_hdxi" for the High-Definition X-ray Imager (HDXI), and the three subarrays of the Lynx X-ray Microcalorimeter (LXM): the Main Array ("lynx_lxm"), the Enhanced Main Array ("lynx_lxm_enh"), and the Ultra High-Resolution Array ("lynx_lxm_ultra").

The HDXI has a single square-shaped 20-arcminute field of view, and the three different subarrays for the LXM have different plate scales, field of view, and spectral resolutions. They are:

  • "lynx_lxm": 5’ field of view, 1” pixels, 3 eV spectral resolution
  • "lynx_lxm_enh": 1’ field of view, 0.5” pixels, 1.5 eV spectral resolution
  • "lynx_lxm_ultra": 1’ field of view, 1” pixels, 0.3 eV spectral resolution (restricted to energies below ~1 keV)
Gratings

A single gratings instrument specification for Lynx is included with SOXS, the Lynx X-ray Gratings Spectrometer, "lynx_xgs", which currently only allows simulations of spectra. It corresponds approximately to the \(d = 3~m, f = 10~m\) mirror system, 50% coverage of the input aperture by the gratings, and \(R = 5000\).

Athena

For simulating Athena observations, two instrument specifications are available, for the WFI (Wide-Field Imager) and the X-IFU (X-ray Integral Field Unit). For both of these specifications, a 12-meter focal length is assumed, along with a 5-arcsecond Gaussian PSF, and observations are not dithered. The WFI detector consists of four chips laid out in a 2x2 shape with a field of view of approximately 40 arcminutes, and the X-IFU detector has a single hexagonal shape with an approximate diameter of 5 arcminutes. For more information about the specification of the Athena instruments assumed here, consult the Athena simulation tools web portal.

Chandra

For simulating Chandra observations, a number of instrument specifications are available. All specifications assume a 10-meter focal length, 0.5-arcsecond Gaussian PSF, dithering, and 0.492-arcsecond pixels.

ACIS-I

The two ACIS-I specifications have a square field of view of roughly 20 arcminutes, laid out in four chips 8 arcminutes on a side arranged 2x2. However, The two separate specifications, "chandra_acisi_cy0" and "chandra_acisi_cy20", use the instrumental responses from shortly after launch (“Cycle 0”) and from more recently (“Cycle 20”), respectively. The main effect is that the effective area at low energies for "chandra_acisi_cy20" is much lower due to the buildup of contamination on the ACIS optical blocking filters compared to the "chandra_acisi_cy0" responses.

ACIS-S

The two ACIS-S specifications have 6 chips 8 arcminutes on a side in a single row. As in the ACIS-I case, the two specifications are for Cycle 0 "chandra_aciss_cy0", and Cycle 20, "chandra_aciss_cy20".

HETG

Eight gratings specifications have been included for ACIS-S and the HETG, for both Cycle 0 and Cycle 20. These simulate spectra only for the MEG and HEG, for the \(\pm\) first order spectra. They are named:

  • "chandra_aciss_meg_m1_cy0"
  • "chandra_aciss_meg_p1_cy0"
  • "chandra_aciss_heg_m1_cy0"
  • "chandra_aciss_heg_p1_cy0"
  • "chandra_aciss_meg_m1_cy20"
  • "chandra_aciss_meg_p1_cy20"
  • "chandra_aciss_heg_m1_cy20"
  • "chandra_aciss_heg_p1_cy20"

XRISM

A single instrument specification is available for XRISM, for the “Resolve” microcalorimeter instrument, named "xrism_resolve". It has a 5.6-meter focal length, a 1.2-arcminute Gaussian PSF, no dithering, a 3-arcminute field of view, and 0.5-arcminute pixels.

AXIS

A single instrument specification axis is available for AXIS, the Advanced X-ray Imaging Satellite. The specification is for the wide-field imaging instrument, with a 15’ field of view, 9.5 m focal length, and a 0.3” PSF. Response files and backgrounds were provided by Eric Miller of MIT.

Backgrounds

The instrument simulator simulates background events as well as the source events provided by the user. There are three background components: the Galactic foreground, a background comprised of discrete point sources, and the instrumental/particle background. Complete information about these components can be found in Background Models in SOXS, but here the keyword arguments pertaining to backgrounds for instrument_simulator() will be detailed.

The various background components can be turned on and off using the ptsrc_bkgnd, instr_bkgnd, and foreground arguments. They are all on by default, but can be turned on or off individually:

# turns off the astrophysical background but leaves in the instrumental
instrument_simulator(simput_file, out_file, exp_time, instrument,
                     sky_center, overwrite=True, instr_bkgnd=False,
                     foreground=True) # ptsrc_bkgnd True by default

For long exposures, backgrounds may take a long time to generate. For this reason, SOXS provides a way to add a background stored in a previously generated event file to the simulation of a source, via the bkgnd_file argument:

# loads the background from a file
instrument_simulator(simput_file, out_file, exp_time, instrument,
                     sky_center, overwrite=True, bkgnd_file="my_bkgnd.fits")

In this case the values of instr_bkgnd, ptsrc_bkgnd, and foreground are ignored regardless of their value. The required background event file can be generated using make_background_file(), and is documented at Using a Background From an Event File. The background event file must be for the same instrument as the one that is being simulated for the source and must have an exposure time at least as long as the source exposure.

Other Modifications

You can also change other aspects of the observation with instrument_simulator(). For example, you can change the size and period of the Lissajous dither pattern, for instruments which have dithering enabled. The default dither pattern has amplitudes of 8.0 arcseconds in the DETX and DETY directions, and a period of 1000.0 seconds in the DETX direction and a period of 707.0 seconds in the DETY direction. You can change these numbers by supplying a list of parameters to the dither_params argument:

import soxs
# The order of dither_params is [x_amp, y_amp, x_period, y_period]
# the units of the amplitudes are in arcseconds and the periods are in
# seconds
dither_params = [8.0, 16.0, 1000.0, 2121.0]
soxs.instrument_simulator(simput_file, out_file, exp_time, instrument,
                          sky_center, overwrite=True,
                          dither_params=dither_params)

To turn dithering off entirely for instruments that enable it, use the no_dither argument:

import soxs
soxs.instrument_simulator(simput_file, out_file, exp_time, instrument,
                          sky_center, overwrite=True,
                          no_dither=True)

Note

Dithering will only be enabled if the instrument specification allows for it. For example, for Lynx, dithering is on by default, but for Athena it is off.

Simulating Spectra Only

If you would like to use an instrument specification and a Spectrum object to generate a spectrum file only (without including spatial effects), SOXS provides a function simulate_spectrum() which can take an unconvolved spectrum and generate a convolved one from it. This is similar to what the XSPEC command “fakeit” does.

spec = soxs.Spectrum.from_file("lots_of_lines.dat")
instrument = "lynx_lxm"
out_file = "lots_of_lines.pha"
simulate_spectrum(spec, instrument, exp_time, out_file, overwrite=True)

This spectrum file then can be read in and analyzed by standard software such as XSPEC, Sherpa, ISIS, etc.

The different background components that can be included in the instrument_simulator() can also be used with simulate_spectrum(). Because in this case the components are assumed to be diffuse, it is necessary to specify an area on the sky that the background was “extracted” from using the bkgnd_area parameter. Here is an example invocation:

spec = soxs.Spectrum.from_file("lots_of_lines.dat")
instrument = "lynx_lxm"
out_file = "lots_of_lines.pha"
simulate_spectrum(spec, instrument, exp_time, out_file,
                  ptsrc_bkgnd=True, foreground=True,
                  instr_bkgnd=True, overwrite=True,
                  bkgnd_area=(1.0, "arcmin**2"))

However, there are a couple of differences. The first difference is that backgrounds are turned off in simulate_spectrum() by default, unlike in instrument_simulator(). The second difference is that while for the instrument_simulator() the point-source background is resolved into invdividual point sources, it is not resolved for simulate_spectrum(), and instead is modeled using an absorbed power-law with the following parameters:

  • Power-law index \(\alpha = 1.45\)
  • Normalization at 1 keV of \(2.0 \times 10^{-7} \rm{photons~cm^{-2}~keV^{-1}}\)

The foreground galactic absorption parameter nH and the absorption model absorb_model can be set by hand:

spec = soxs.Spectrum.from_file("lots_of_lines.dat")
instrument = "lynx_lxm"
out_file = "lots_of_lines.pha"
simulate_spectrum(spec, instrument, exp_time, out_file,
                  ptsrc_bkgnd=True, foreground=True,
                  instr_bkgnd=True, overwrite=True, nH=0.02,
                  absorb_model="tbabs", bkgnd_area=(1.0, "arcmin**2"))

Instrument specifications with the "imaging" keyword set to False can only be used with simulate_spectrum() and not instrument_simulator(). Currently, this includes grating instruments.

A Note About Simulations with Grating Instruments

Currently in SOXS, simulations of sources observed by grating instruments are not supported with the instrument_simulator(). Gratings observations can be generated using Spectrum objects and simulate_spectrum(), which produces a mock gratings spectrum:

import soxs

# Create an absorbed power-law spectrum
spec = soxs.Spectrum.from_powerlaw(2.0, 0.0, 0.1, 0.1, 10.0, 100000)
spec.apply_foreground_absorption(0.1, absorb_model='tbabs')

# Simulate the observed spectrum with Chandra/ACIS HETG: MEG, -1 order, Cycle 20
soxs.simulate_spectrum(spec, "chandra_aciss_meg_m1_cy20", (100.0, "ks"),
                       "soxs_meg_m1.pha", overwrite=True)

# Plot the spectrum
soxs.plot_spectrum("soxs_meg_m1.pha")
../_images/gratings_spectrum.png

Adding backgrounds to grating instrument specifications in simulate_spectrum() is not supported at this time, but will be in a future release.

Creating New Instrument Specifications

SOXS provides the ability to customize the models of the different components of the instrument being simulated. This is provided by the use of the instrument registry and JSON files which contain prescriptions for different instrument configurations.

The Instrument Registry

The instrument registry is simply a Python dictionary containing various instrument specifications. You can see the contents of the instrument registry by calling show_instrument_registry():

import soxs
soxs.show_instrument_registry()

gives (showing only a subset for brevity):

Instrument: lynx_hdxi
    name: hdxi_3x10
    arf: xrs_hdxi_3x10.arf
    rmf: xrs_hdxi.rmf
    bkgnd: acisi
    fov: 20.0
    num_pixels: 4096
    aimpt_coords: [0.0, 0.0]
    chips: None
    focal_length: 10.0
    dither: True
    psf: ['gaussian', 0.5]
    imaging: True
    grating: False
    dep_name: hdxi
Instrument: lynx_xgs
    name: lynx_xgs
    arf: xrs_cat.arf
    rmf: xrs_cat.rmf
    bkgnd: None
    focal_length: 10.0
    imaging: False
    grating: True
Instrument: athena_xifu
    name: athena_xifu
    arf: athena_xifu_1469_onaxis_pitch249um_v20160401.arf
    rmf: athena_xifu_rmf_v20160401.rmf
    bkgnd: athena_xifu
    fov: 5.991992621478149
    num_pixels: 84
    aimpt_coords: [0.0, 0.0]
    chips: [['Polygon',
            [-33, 0, 33, 33, 0, -33],
            [20, 38, 20, -20, -38, -20]]]
    focal_length: 12.0
    dither: False
    psf: ['gaussian', 5.0]
    imaging: True
    grating: False
Instrument: chandra_acisi_cy0
    name: chandra_acisi_cy0
    arf: acisi_aimpt_cy0.arf
    rmf: acisi_aimpt_cy0.rmf
    bkgnd: acisi
    fov: 20.008
    num_pixels: 2440
    aimpt_coords: [86.0, 57.0]
    chips: [['Box', -523, -523, 1024, 1024],
            ['Box', 523, -523, 1024, 1024],
            ['Box', -523, 523, 1024, 1024],
            ['Box', 523, 523, 1024, 1024]]
    psf: ['gaussian', 0.5]
    focal_length: 10.0
    dither: True
    imaging: True
    grating: False
    dep_name: acisi_cy0
Instrument: hitomi_sxs
    name: hitomi_sxs
    arf: hitomi_sxs_ptsrc.arf
    rmf: hitomi_sxs.rmf
    bkgnd: hitomi_sxs
    num_pixels: 6
    fov: 3.06450576
    aimpt_coords: [0.0, 0.0]
    chips: None
    focal_length: 5.6
    dither: False
    psf: ['gaussian', 72.0]
    imaging: True
    grating: False
...

The various parts of each instrument specification are:

  • "name": The name of the instrument specification.
  • "arf": The file containing the ARF.
  • "rmf": The file containing the RMF.
  • "fov": The field of view in arcminutes. This may represent a single chip or an area within which chips are embedded.
  • "num_pixels": The number of resolution elements on a side of the field of view.
  • "chips": The specification for multiple chips, if desired. For more details on how to specify chips, see Defining Instruments with Multiple Chips.
  • "bkgnd": The name of the instrumental background to use, stored in the background registry (see Background Models in SOXS for more details). This can also be set to None for no particle background.
  • "psf": The PSF specification to use. At time of writing, the only one available is that of a Gaussian PSF, with a single parameter, the HPD of the PSF. This is specified using a Python list, e.g. ["gaussian", 0.5]. This can also be set to None for no PSF.
  • "focal_length": The focal length of the telescope in meters.
  • "dither": Whether or not the instrument dithers by default.
  • "imaging": Whether or not the instrument supports imaging. If False, only spectra can be simulated using this instrument specification.
  • "grating": Whether or not this instrument specification corresponds to a gratings instrument.

As SOXS matures, this list of specifications will likely expand, and the number of options for some of them (e.g., the PSF) will also expand.

Making Custom Instruments

To make a custom instrument, you can take an existing instrument specification and modify it, giving it a new name, or write a new specification to a JSON file and read it in. To make a new specification from a dictionary, construct the dictionary and feed it to add_instrument_to_registry(). For example, if you wanted to take the default calorimeter specification and change the plate scale, you would do it this way, using get_instrument_from_registry() to get the specification so that you can alter it:

from soxs import get_instrument_from_registry, add_instrument_to_registry
new_lxm = get_instrument_from_registry("lynx_lxm")
new_lxm["name"] = "lxm_high_res" # Must change the name, otherwise an error will be thrown
new_lxm["num_pixels"] = 12000 # Results in an ambitiously smaller plate scale, 0.1 arcsec per pixel
name = add_instrument_to_registry(new_lxm)

You can also store an instrument specification in a JSON file and import it:

name = add_instrument_to_registry("my_lxm.json")

You can download an example instrument specification JSON file here.

You can also take an existing instrument specification and write it to a JSON file for editing using write_instrument_json():

from soxs import write_instrument_json
# Using the "lxm_high_res" from above
write_instrument_json("lxm_high_res", "lxm_high_res.json")

Warning

Since JSON files use Javascript-style notation instead of Python’s, there are two differences one must note when creating JSON-based instrument specifications: 1. Python’s None will convert to null, and vice-versa. 2. True and False are capitalized in Python, in JSON they are lowercase.

Making Custom Non-Imaging and Grating Instruments

Non-imaging and grating instrument specifications are far simpler than imaging instrument specifications, and require fewer keywords. The "lynx_xgs" instrument specification provides an example of the minimum number of keywords required for such instruments:

instrument_registry["lynx_xgs"] = {"name": "lynx_xgs",
                                   "arf": "xrs_cat.arf",
                                   "rmf": "xrs_cat.rmf",
                                   "bkgnd": None,
                                   "focal_length": 10.0,
                                   "imaging": False,
                                   "grating": True}

For non-imaging instruments, "imaging" must be set to False. For gratings instruments, "grating" must be set to True.

Defining Instruments with Multiple Chips

If the "chips" entry in the instrument specification is None, then there will only be one chip which covers the entire field of view. However, it is also possible to specify multiple chips with essentially arbitary shapes. In this case, the "chips" entry needs to be a list containing a set of lists, one for each chip, that specifies a region expression parseable by the pyregion package.

Three options are currently recognized by SOXS for chip shapes:

  • Rectangle shapes, which use the Box region. The four arguments are xc (center in the x-coordinate), yc (center in the y-coordinate), width, and height.
  • Circle shapes, which use the Circle region. The three arguments are xc (center in the x-coordinate), yc (center in the y-coordinate), and radius.
  • Generic polygon shapes, which use the Polygon region. The two arguments are x and y, which are lists of x and y coordinates for each point of the polygon.

To create a chip, simply supply a list starting with the name of the region type and followed by the arguments in order. All coordinates and distances are in detector coordinates. For example, a Box region at detector coordinates (0,0) with a width of 100 pixels and a height of 200 pixels would be specified as ["Box", 0.0, 0.0, 100, 200].

For example, the Chandra ACIS-I instrument configurations have a list of four Box regions to specify the four I-array square-shaped chips:

instrument_registry["chandra_acisi_cy20"] = {"name": "acisi_cy20",
                                             "arf": "acisi_aimpt_cy20.arf",
                                             "rmf": "acisi_aimpt_cy20.rmf",
                                             "bkgnd": "acisi",
                                             "fov": 20.008,
                                             "num_pixels": 2440,
                                             "aimpt_coords": [86.0, 57.0],
                                             "chips": [["Box", -523, -523, 1024, 1024],
                                                       ["Box", 523, -523, 1024, 1024],
                                                       ["Box", -523, 523, 1024, 1024],
                                                       ["Box", 523, 523, 1024, 1024]],
                                             "psf": ["gaussian", 0.5],
                                             "focal_length": 10.0,
                                             "dither": True,
                                             "imaging": True,
                                             "grating": False}

whereas the Athena XIFU instrument configuration uses a Polygon region:

instrument_registry["athena_xifu"] = {"name": "athena_xifu",
                                      "arf": "athena_xifu_1469_onaxis_pitch249um_v20160401.arf",
                                      "rmf": "athena_xifu_rmf_v20160401.rmf",
                                      "bkgnd": "athena_xifu",
                                      "fov": 5.991992621478149,
                                      "num_pixels": 84,
                                      "aimpt_coords": [0.0, 0.0],
                                      "chips": [["Polygon",
                                                 [-33, 0, 33, 33, 0, -33],
                                                 [20, 38, 20, -20, -38, -20]]],
                                      "focal_length": 12.0,
                                      "dither": False,
                                      "psf": ["gaussian", 5.0],
                                      "imaging": True,
                                      "grating": False}

Making Simple Square-Shaped Instruments

One may want to simulate a particular instrumental energy response for an imaging observation, but you may not want to deal with the complicating factors of multiple chips, PSF, background, or dithering. The function make_simple_instrument() has been provided to create simple, square-shaped instruments without chip gaps to facilitate this possibility.

By default, square instruments are created with a specified field of view and resolution. Turning off the instrumental b To create a simple Chandra/ACIS-I-like instrument with a new field of view and spatial resolution:

fov = 20.0 # defaults to arcmin
num_pixels = 2048
make_simple_instrument("chandra_acisi_cy20", "simple_acisi", fov, num_pixels)

To create the same instrument but to additionally turn off the dither:

fov = 20.0 # defaults to arcmin
num_pixels = 2048
make_simple_instrument("chandra_acisi_cy20", "simple_acisi", fov, num_pixels,
                       no_dither=True)

To create a simple Athena/XIFU-like instrument without the background and with no PSF:

fov = (1024, "arcsec")
num_pixels = 2048
make_simple_instrument("athena_xifu", "simple_xifu", fov, num_pixels,
                       no_bkgnd=True, no_psf=True)